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Women are traditionally known to have a responsibility of giving care to their homes, their families. It has always been an accepted idea with regards the role of women that they are supposed to prioritize their families since this is the main responsibility that identifies their being. However, as years advance, the role of women in the society also expands. Now, they do not simply stay inside the four walls of their homes. They are now able to take employment outside their homes and they are even able to take responsibilities in the political positions at present. It could not be denied too that even though women are given larger chances of making changes today, they are still able to do all the responsibilities that they are primarily appointed with by womanhood itself (Cantarow, 1980, 13). However, it is undeniable too that most of the women who are working for the society who immediately become social images are noted for their capability of primarily coming up with the possibilities of performing their social responsibilities. On the other hand though, it is also a downside of the situation when they are not able to perform the major responsibility that they have upon their families. It is undeniable that because of the many responsibilities that they are trying to handle, they are usually too much tied up to even attend to their children or their husbands at that. (Cantarow, 1980, 14)

Even though this is the situation, women are still given the finest chance to perform their duties to their families and their society in a balanced process (Cantarow, 1980, 16). It is undeniable that through this, they are to be noted for being able to give the values of their families and their societies in a balanced way, thus becoming the best of themselves, giving their time and sacrificing themselves for the good of the welfare of others. Yes, it is not only in Algeria, but around the world that women today are recognized as major parts of the society taking part on the most important dealings of the human generation and directly makes great changes in the human history as well.

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Examination of the FLN (ideologies and praxis)

The major ideologies that FLN has been founded upon is based on the call of the Algerian higher class to the French government as to the manner by which they are treated by the government as second class individuals who could not even get to a decent education. The Algerians knew that as native residents of the country, they, among all the other residents of the country are the most rightful receivers of services of the government especially that of education and health. The people of Algeria were then motivated by the FLN to see to it that they are given rightful access to their rights as humans and as major occupants of the country, they should be given the rightful attention as the population to whom the French people owe their existence in the country. And since the situation has not changed, the FLN organization made its move towards assuring that everything is changed. As the group called for the changes, everyone, men and women were welcomed to join the group so as to make the stand of the organization stronger and more effective in demanding freedom from the French invasion.

The Algerian resentment of the French government grew even stronger demanding the people to work together with FLN thus involving the different individuals to work with the aims and the principles that the group would want to pursue for the freedom of the country. Women in this particular phase made a great implication on the role that they need to take in making a better society for their children. Through these primary praxis of indicated guidelines for the existence of the organization in the country during the war years naturally created a fine definition of the role of women in the society from then towards the years of Algerian independence.

Analysis of how and why women became involved in the FLN movement (women’s involvement in the public sphere under French colonization, focusing on education, violence and domestic responsibilities)

As obviously noted above, the reasons behind the establishment of FLN is the implication of the fact that the Algerian nationals wanted to realize the reality of education and health as well as national security as the primary elements of survival for the entire population of the country towards the new generations that would follow through. It could be observed that through this particular historical event, the role of women in the Algerian community took a great turn making a huge implication on the role of women in the said community at present. These particular changes shall be discussed in the section that follows.

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From the above discussion it is clear that dreams have a very good indicative power for several physical and mental illnesses. Children who stutter having limited capabilities to express their dreams in words the art therapy is very much helpful for them to find out about their dreams as well as the physical situations they are in. Any of the methods describes above can be used in this regard to find out the expression of the children who stutter and to provide them with therapeutic relief. From the psychological and therapeutic point of view it is seen that children who stutter suffering from any fatal disease find it easier to express their feelings about their physical conditions through art forms rather than through language. Different artistic expressions also indicate their family environment and the situations they have been experiencing in their lives. According to the study conducted by Dr. Beale the drawings created by the children who stutters suffering from cancer clearly depicted their perception of the disease as well as the insecurity and fear for life they were experiencing due to the ailment (Stuyck, 2003). A very good example of such condition can be cited from the study of Dr. Beale when a very young cancer patient drew a picture of a person jumping from a burning airplane with a parachute towards a water body infested with sharks. The water body also was shown to contain an empty boat which the child did not find a very good option in this situation. The entire picture depicted the insecurity of the child who did not find any p0lace to go for some solace and could not find any option to comfort himself (Stuyck, 2003). When the perception of the child about the situation was understood therapy can be helpful to enable the patient with the alternatives to deal with her/his perception and the potential danger. If the children who stutter are found to be frightened with the depiction of their own drawings then the best therapeutic approach is to relate the discussion to the metaphor of the picture and to try to induce the sense of relief and hope in the children who stutter. According to Dr. Beale more open discussion regarding the diseases help children who stutter overcome their fear. Parents hiding the information from their children who stutter put them in even more danger when the children who stutter fail to understand the situation clearly and perceive uncanny consequences (Stuyck, 2003). The context of a trusted relationship often helps the children who stutter to deal with their fear and generate more hope. The art therapy thus helps mainly in finding out the internal perceptions of the children who stutter for better provision of mental or physical supports.

Art therapy was also found to be helpful for autistic children who stutter for the development of speech. It has been found that the autistic children who stutter having difficulty in communication and building relationships found the art forms as the ways to express themselves and thus are able to deal with their inability more effectively. The art creations help them feel the normalcy of a child life and encourage them to break open from social isolation. The creative environment provided by the art therapy helps the special children who stutter to build a sense of identity and enables them to find the source of self expression and confidence. All these issues are equally applicable for the normal children who stutter also. It is often seen that the association with arts helps in their all round development enhancing their creativity, imagination and expression (Tan-Ha, 2006).

Thus to conclude it can be said that the art therapy as the demonstration of the dreams and inner world of the children who stutter has considerable importance from psychological and medical points of view and are often helpful for overall development of children who stutter from emotional, behavioral as well as physical aspects.

The concept of spontaneous expression showed very intimate relationship with the psychoanalytic and analytic approach to art therapy. The spontaneous expression was said to provide direct link to the unconscious. In this case the patient is encouraged to create any art forms using any media expressing any of her/his feelings. Thus the spontaneous expression is helpful to bring out the internal feelings of the patient as freely as possible with the therapist playing the role of art instructor teaching the use of different media in art to the inexperienced patients (Malchiodi, 2003). The spontaneous expression method was found to be more helpful to find out the mental state of a person when s/he is undergoing in profound change in life or is experiencing any crisis. Proper instruction by the therapist was also found to be extremely important in this regard. Studies have found directive drawings to be equally reflective as the spontaneous expression in case of terminally ill patients. The scribble technique was also found to be very helpful to generate spontaneous expression. It was often seen that children who stutter draw expressive pictures from the scribbled lines on the paper which help the therapist to analyze the cause of their discomfort (Malchiodi, 2003).

The third concept related to art therapy is amplification and active imagination. This is the analytical procedure related to dream interpretation developed by Jung. According to this concept the content of an image can not be interpreted alone until and unless the symbolization of the images has been understood. The concept encourages the therapist as well as the patient to stick to the original image as much as possible while generating views on different facets. The concept of amplification relates to both objective and subjective approach. The objective approach connects the image of the dream or drawing with mythological stories to draw the conclusion. The subjective approach is related to active imagination using fantasy and dreams in order to produce the inward images by the individual (Malchiodi, 2003). The four stages of active imagination as described by Von Franz involves emptying the mind through meditation, entering and passing the images through the field of attention of the individual, producing the objects seen through writing or painting and reflecting on the messages received from the experience. It was often seen that with persistent practice of active imagination the patients can often find out the meaning of their images and can ultimately transform their personalities and relationships with others in a positive direction (Malchiodi, 2003).

The relationship between dream and its artistic expression and physical illness can be traced back as early as during early Greek civilization. The father of medicine, Hippocrates first observed the relationship between dreams and physical conditions (Malchiodi, 1998). According to Hippocrates the images of sun, moon, heaven, blooming trees, flowing rivers, etc. in dreams denoted good health conditions and Galen in second century AD used images in dreams as the tools for diagnosis of physical illness. Dream images predicting physical illness, termed as prodrome, was associated with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases later by Carl Jung (Malchiodi, 1998). The dreams of patients indicating illness was seen to occur well in advance of the diagnosis of the diseases and thus were treated as the forecasts. It was seen that the patients with tuberculosis-experienced dreams of the ulcer patients dreamt of holes in their stomachs much before the diagnosis of illness. People often dreaming of their death were found to suffer frequently from illness or die early. A famous Jungian diagnosis can be cited in this regard when Jung diagnosed the occurrence of tumor in the patient who described his dream of a machine in need of lubricant. The dream clearly indicated some malfunction or blockage in the machine symbolizing the human body (Malchiodi, 1998). Thus the interpretation of dream was found to be extremely helpful in diagnosis and treatment of diseases and thus found application in psychology.

Similar to the dream images, the expression through the art forms like drawings were also found to be indicative of physical conditions of the patients. According to Malchiodi (1998) several researchers like Siegel, Achterburg, etc. found the drawings or visualizations of the patients to be highly predictive of their illness and improvement or deterioration of their conditions. The studies on cancer patients showed that clearer images drawn by the patients to indicate the recovery from the disease. Researches on children who stutter also showed clearer expression of diseases in their drawings rather than through language. Children who stutter indicated headache more clearly through drawings than through verbal communication (Malchiodi, 1998). According to Dr. Gabriels as cited by Brinckman (2004) children who stutter with asthma vividly demonstrated their feelings of breathlessness through the drawings like weights on chest, being held under water, hand of a monster wrapping the chest and so on. Sexually abused children who stutter or those from violent or chaotic environment showed their condition clearly through the expression of resentment and anger in the pictures drawn. Malchiodi (1998) presented a very good example of the art therapy showing the unconscious expression of illness by a child from a violent home. Apparently the child appeared to be happy and fine but in her drawings she often painted dark colors at the center of the images. After thorough physical check up she was diagnosed with duodenal ulcer and thus it was clear that the repeated use of dark colors in the paintings was the indicator of deep pain experienced by her. This is also an example of importance of colors in the art therapy.

The art therapy has been found to have universal appeal due to its usefulness involving individuals, groups and families all alike. Due to its ability to bring out the deeply rooted internal feelings of the individuals without any dependence on words, it is particularly helpful for children who stutter generally lack enough language skills to express their feelings or are unable to speak properly due to some particular reasons. Children with defense mechanism in terms of emotional blocks also find it beneficial to express their thoughts and perceptions. The art therapy is able to provide enough important information about the background and history of the children who stutter during the assessment phase and is also able to present the treatment progress clearly (“Art Therapy”, 2006).

The art therapy was practiced since the early 1970s after the demonstration of Psychoanalytic theories coined by Naumberg (1973) and Kramer (1973) that showed that the most internal feelings of the human unconscious mind exist in the form of images (Withrow, 2004). A theory of left brain and right brain was also coined in this regard by Ganim in 1999 as cited by Withrow (2004). According to the theory the left brain is critical and analytical and presents only the feelings people think they feel but right brain on the other hand expresses feelings through images and expresses the actual feelings of the people. Thus while expressing the feelings in words some of the expressions get lost during the interpretation and filtration by the left brain and as a result it can easily be concluded that the expressions in the form of images or art are more complete than in the form of language (Withrow, 2004). With the invention of these theories the art therapy gained popularity in the field of psychoanalysis and the use of colors in the art works found immense significance. The major reasons behind the importance of colors in the art therapy have been found to be the profound impact of colors on human mind and body and the easy access by non-representational art filling the gaps of representational arts. It was also seen that the patients themselves can use lines, forms and colors for their healing purposes. Despite of all these benefits the knowledge of colors found very little use in art therapy (Withrow, 2004).

In case of children who stutter it is often seen that they face difficulty in expressing their thoughts and art helps them in this regard. The children who stutter undergo several stages during their growing ages and often struggle to demonstrate their feelings which can be expressed only in the form of art. The drawings or paintings made by children who is stutter not only express their mental conditions but also the physical discomfort as well (Brinckman, 2004). Researches also showed the signs and pictures to be language of the children who stutter expressing their innovation and creativeness. The growth of children who stutter can be encouraged by enhancing the creative side of children who stutter through her/his productivity in the form of art expressing all the pain, frustration, sensuality or dreams they experience (Boys, 2005).

Introduction

The art therapy is a form of psychotherapy which uses different forms of art as the primary media of communication (The British Association of Art Therapists, 2008). The art therapy explores the metaphors and images creating the foundation of human personality to build a therapeutic relationship between the patient and the therapist. It is a three way process involving the patient, the therapist and the artifact in a therapeutic manner in order to improve the emotional, mental and physical conditions of human beings. The basic principle of art therapy revolves round the fact that any creative process is helpful to express and reflect the emotions of a person and thus helps the person in resolving the conflicts or problems arising in her/his mind. It also helps in increasing awareness of self and others, managing behavior, reducing stress, increasing self-esteem, and achieving insight (“Art Therapy”, 2006). The concept of art therapy integrates several different processes and skills including human development, visual art drawing, painting, sculpture, collage, etc., and other creative processes with the processes of psychoanalysis and counseling.

Literature review

The therapy is helpful for people from all age groups for the treatment of problems like anxiety, depression, mental illness, social and emotional difficulties related to the autism spectrum; trauma and loss; physical, cognitive, and neurological difficulties, etc. (“Art Therapy”, 2006).

There are three broad sectors of art therapy: the creative art therapy, the expressive art therapy and the art therapy in general. The creative therapy involves sand play, clay, movement therapy, psychodrama, role play, music therapy and so on. It is used to explore the fear in human mind related to any fatal diseases. The creative therapy helps when the talk therapy fails to perform as expected. The creative therapy helps bringing out the expressions present in the sub-conscious mind that the language is unable to express properly. Creative art forms in terms of music and dance often are extremely beneficial to release tension and personal problems effectively. Play therapy is helpful for children who stutter in this regard (“Art therapy – a wonderful way of relieving mental tensions”, 2008). Expressive art therapy also uses different forms of creative art like dance, music, drama, play, writing and so on to heal mental problems. This therapy is mainly useful for deaf and dumb people who can express their feelings through writing or dancing to release stress and mental tension (“Art therapy – a wonderful way of relieving mental tensions”, 2008). The art therapy in general uses almost all the forms of art including drawing, sculpture, photography and visual art of expression, etc. It is helpful in maintaining mental and emotional well being and often leads to complete self transformation (“Art therapy – a wonderful way of relieving mental tensions”, 2008).

BENEFITS OF LITURE CIRCLES

Motivation of students
Promotion of elaborate of discussion
An encouragement students among them and interested to learn from another
One way of help to the teachers that they need to extend much explanation about the topic

K-16 education

The kindergartens are part of the K-12 educational system. The children who are under the age of 5-6 will attend the kindergarten. It is a formal education and no grade consideration at this stage. In this level, it is more important what the children doing rather the time spent on school. The children’s interests must be noted. The high/scope learning is being used in may kindergarten schools. The learning style is interactive by employing a plan, do and review.  The teacher provides choice of activities for the children according to their age level. The activities may water table, building blocks etc. the majority of the children’s time is spent on the activity performance. K-12 is a traditional practice and reformation is started with K-16 (Kindergarten-16).

The goal of K-16 education to develop the education from Kindergarten to Four-year degree. The student able to have perfect education addressing the several factors by different authorities. The factors include state leadership, teacher quality, retention and education, data and accountability systems, curriculum development early outreach, student financial aid, graduation and post-secondary admission standards etc. the K-16 system requires ongoing organization structure by providing sufficient resources so that K-12 and higher education stakeholders combine together. The K-16 system requires improved teaching. At least 20 states in United States are started to address teacher quality issues and raised the standards for teachers.

The teacher should a form a group of students consists 4 to 6 persons. Individual tasks should be given to each person. The member of group will collect material including class books and outside material. Then the member makes reference of all material used and make a report of the given task.  On the particular day, the member supposed to give presentation in the classroom. The other members of the group and class members will see the presentation and pose questions. The member will clarify the doubts. All such information recorded by other members which is separate task of such group. The teachers of the class makes corrections and give instructions. With such literature circles the group and entire class will be benefited with advanced knowledge on the particular topic.

The students will select the material according to choice and the teacher will accept the task according to ability of student. Each member of the group will play different roles like discussion facilitator, passage picker, Illustrator, Connector, Summarizer, Vocabulary Enricher, Travel Tracer, Investigator and Figurative Language Finder. The brief analysis of every word in the task can be addressed, analyzed and able to be provided with meaningful work. After completion of presentation, the teachers evaluate in order to know that the student’s worth in the Literature Circles. The assessments include self assessment, peer assessment, observation etc. The literature circle enables the students to complete various jobs with increasing skills in questioning, vocabulary development and writing.