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In the paper that follows, understanding how women were actually able to play a great role in the middle of the stance they have towards the fight that they are in against the French government and its oppressing tactics in the country during the war years shall be considerably discussed. Through the use of presenting the history that lead to these changes, the paper shall revolve in identifying the key responsibilities of the women, thus giving recognition to their contribution to the winning of Algerian freedom from the war years.


The war years that bounded the Algerian freedom had been established in the year 1954 and were later on ended in the year 1962. This phase of the Algerian history notes the different issues that existed within the said community before and how these issues were given careful attention so as to assure that Algeria and its people would be free again. Believing in the capability of the people to create their own ways in dealing with the issues of war occurring in the country, several groups were created to control the situation and at least ease the major national pain being dealt with by the people. The belief that the strife should stop especially to protect the values of the innocent ones had been spurred among many group leaders in the history of Algeria giving way to the establishment of the Algerian People’s Party which later on gave birth to a branched organization of the National Liberation Front or the FLN.

What FLN is about is based on the willingness and rather a demand of the people to be free from the grasp of the French government during the 1950’s. The idea that Algeria belongs to the Algerians continued to echo the defense that the FLN organization naturally use to motivate themselves to continue the fight that they have began. This group was rather considered to be one of the most important organizations that existed in the country that aimed for the larger benefit that could be garnered by the larger part of the population that composed the Algerian country. Believably, the people of Algeria knew that they were there to fight for their country and to regain what they lost to the wars from the oppressors who want to have more of their country while enslaving the people of nation.

From the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA), the establishment of the FLN was realized. The unbelievable willingness and serious stand of the people to stand for what they believe is true and to fight for those that they strongly believe to be theirs has fueled the identifiable values of the group which FLN members recognized as the core source of their motivation to continue the legacy of fighting for what is right.

The idea of empowering the youths through member organizations is a very good idea because I will know my contribution to the public policy and how this policy impacts my life. It also makes me understand which public policy affects me and which public office I will to find the services I need. Looking at the empowerment value of these organizations is one often greatest value that the young generations the so called future leaders of our country needs.

Lastly, the education value is another value which is pursued by this organization that is extremely valuable to me because I am able to get books which are being circulated by this organization and this enables me to study and understand the issue that affects day to day life. The guidebook provided by this organization is no doubt one of the best books that should be considered by many young and old in making decisions in relations to the political government they should have.

The organizations focuses on educating, empowering, energizing the public. This is because you cannot energize, empower a person who does not know his rights or what he wants from the public administration. You ought to educate a person in relations to what he expects from public policy and how his or her actions expect the public. Once this person is educated on what his public policy, what is expected of him and what is expected on his public then this person will be empowered. Empowerment is giving somebody an ability to make decisions on any activity where he is involved. At the same time, empowerment in this organization involved many youth forums volunteered my many organizations which ensures that the youths find necessary forums to make decisions.  Once somebody is empowered he will need to be energized. And energizing the youth is by bringing various stakeholders together to educate these young generations on various issues. Without this kind of forum this country will have failed policies because the public does not information of what is required of them.

Looking at this organization, one will be persuaded to believe that the organization is not only doing good to the people of organization but also creating democratic space in the United States of America. When you look at the organizations missions’ statement, it is no doubt what the Americans require. Americans require education on public policies. They also require information on how they can impact public policy. Looking at the recent happening which could have been avoided if proper issues were dealt with at public forums. Most Americans were against the war in Iraq. However, because the organization had not taken look all over the country the people complained and they did not know where to channel their complaints, this is why they have the current financial crisis. The principle of democracy is that all members of the society have equal access to power and all members enjoy generally recognized freedom and liberties. Although this is presumed to be existing in United States of America because the people choose and replace government, the participate in political activities, there is protection of human rights and rules of law apply to all but looking critically active participation is the key question here after electing the leader what is the role? Do we give him the four years without checking his activities? This organization I believe its giving me this opportunity nolvadex to scrutinize the roles played by our leaders after we have given them power. The political detainees in the name of prisoners of war from Afghanistan and Iraq are treated in de-human which is against the basic human right which our country purports to protect then is it that our participation ends after election? The answer is no.

From the foregoing discussion, I am of the opinion that this organization is good for democracy in the United States and most of all people in America should donate to this organization to make it powerful to be able to disseminate information to the young generation. is an organization which is networking persons by offering education related to their civil rights with an aim of empowering and energizing the young generation in order for them to engage themselves in political participation in the Unites States. This organizations main aim is to ensure there is political change how things are done in the country by bringing in new people to the limelight. This organization is of value to many millennium generations. It provides information to all the members who have joined. Joining the organization only requires nothing as it is a non-governmental non-profit making organization.

This organization has many objectives and values tat are to only important to me but too many people in this country. One of the objectives is to educate the young generation about leadership and to mobilize them to be able to adopt change. The main aim in this is to ensure the young generation moves forward and there is change in the way things are done in this country. The education on how public policy affects the live of young people and how people can impact on public policy is very important.

This brings in the objective of change by the people knowing how public policy impacts on their life and how they can impact on public policy innovative solutions will come up because it involves many people as they deliberate joint issues publicly a contribution of each members becomes a innovative idea. This public forum where millennia generation deliberate are institutionalized by This improves governance in the public life. The other goal of energizing and empowering the young generation is important to me and to my youths because I will be able to participate in public issues which affect my day to day life and more so take day to day action when political leaders fail us. Through these forums created many youths are able to understand political issues and are able to make informed judgment in relations to decisions that affects their lives. These can be observed from the recent political campaigns where citizens were able to look at policies that are volunteered by various political players. With proper information from this organization the current economic condition in the United States could have been avoided because the events that led to it were political and economic policies which failed if they were brought to the table and discussed that could have been avoided. This makes the organizations more important than ever as the current and future political leaders are likely to make decisions which do not affect the United States but the world at large.

The values that are pursued by this organizations are extremely very important to me take for instance the value of energizing where people in colleges and high school come together, discuss issues  relating to the constitutions, correct views and how to create strong institutions. This improves my understanding on democracy in my country as well as it brings together students communities, entrepreneurs and political leaders together where ideas are shared./ this indeed is what America is looking for to make the voter outside there understand how he should be governed. Also to make sure that the young people in colleges get an opportunity to mix with people from the business world. This does not only open up the mind of the American world but ensures the prosperity of the country.

Alphabet organizations generally fail to function as responsible parties because they have been used mainly as campaign vehicles by candidates who act as independents when elected. Faced with an overwhelming majority of Ontario residents opposed to local party politics, members of electoral slates have been extremely reluctant to impose bloc voting on council. A candidate in one of the elections stated that his party’s nominees "would work as a team although occasionally there would be differences of opinion and they would be on opposing sides." (Nossal 1989) Alphabet organizations’ loose structure and lack of sanctions preclude the exercise of party discipline.

Alphabet organizations usually languish after each election, only to revive just before the next, when they often either splinter, with dissidents initiating yet another electoral organization, or adopt another name, possibly that of a defunct party. Another factor weakening local parties is that they seldom run enough candidates to capture a majority of council seats, let alone a full slate. In the last decades support for local party politics has declined in the province’s largest cities. A shift in the ideological position of a city’s political opponents has taken place so that they no longer fit neatly along a classic left/right political continuum. Just emerging in Ontario is a new politics based on environmentalism. As environmental and related growth issues become increasingly important, one can predict that once again local political parties will appear to clarify these new issues for the electorate.

In an ideal democratic voting system, each person has one vote and the candidate who receives a majority of the votes cast in the election wins. Simple as it may sound, few municipalities achieve this ideal. The system of representation employed in a municipality can be structured to accomplish certain ends. A ward system is generally most advantageous to those at the margins of society; an at-large system of representation favours the middle and professional classes. However, the wards that eventually replaced at-large representation in Ontario were far too big to represent minorities adequately, and the middle and professional classes soon learned how to manipulate ward representation to their own advantage.

Although many communities have attempted electoral reform, most reform measures have been either diluted or totally eliminated. The municipal voting system in Ontario seems to be straightforward, simple, and unbiased; the candidate with the most votes wins. The "plurality formula" ratifies the election of the candidate who receives more votes than any other single candidate, but the successful candidate need not have a higher total than all other candidates combined. (Atkinson 1993) The plurality system falls short of being an ideal system since it allows candidates who do not have a majority of the vote to win and it does not necessarily produce a truly representative council. The principal advantages of the plurality system are that it is simple and it seems to be very democratic. However, when people are elected to office who receive the most votes rather than a majority of votes, their legitimate right to hold office can be, and sometimes is, questioned. This, definitely, was not the case with Progressive Conservative party rule in Ontario, as their support was so overwhelming, that no one could even theoretically question the legitimacy of their rule in the post war period.


It is known that generally the individual commercial pharmacies provide a broad range of private customer needs. These pharmacies stock a diverse and a large quantity of pharmaceutical drugs. Their selection of drugs is more passive than those hospital pharmacies. Thus demand for drugs of a private pharmacy is relatively price inelastic, because its goal is to keep up stocking all major drugs on the market to meet its customer demands. Price of the prescription drugs is the performance of pharmaceutical company discounts offered to the hospitals. Generally most of the hospitals run their own in-house pharmacies. As a result, a hospital is well informed about which drugs its physicians prescribe. On the basis of these, the hospital pharmacy chooses the stock. Through this strategy, the hospitals have important bargaining power in transactions with pharmaceutical companies. In this case, the pharmaceutical companies offer substantial discounts on large amount for purchasing its product.

According to a study research conducted from  the University of Minnesota, the pharmaceutical companies are raising the price of their drugs by 100% or more without any fanfare (Gutierrez, 2009). Such practice seems to be getting more common day by day and the concern is growing. By the first half of 2008, the prices of 17 drugs had at least doubled. There is no simple explanation why the price is increasing from those pharmaceutical companies. If the price of prescription drugs continuously increases, it could have a devastating effect on the Medicare drug program and on overall economy as well. It would discourage enrollees from joining in the program.

There are some reasons for which the drug prices increase whether those are reasonable or unreasonable. Sometimes the distribution channels play the role for increasing drug prices. Prescription drug prices differ depending on the kind of organization buys them and the manner in which they are bought. For example, some organizations use direct selling without any wholesaler or retailer. In this case they can keep the price lower than those companies who use the distribution channel by using wholesaler or retailer. As there is no reconciliation, the price of prescription drugs automatically increased.

Role/challenges of government

U.S. government is a major buyer of prescription drugs. But the role the U.S. government play is limited compared to the European government. In 2000, government paid for nearly 22 percent of all spending on prescription drugs. It is important issue to consider whether there are any others role the government can play regarding prescription drugs. Though, the industry argues against government engagement in pricing of prescription drugs. New pharmaceutical drugs may help to improve quality of health and life for many people in future, but at the same time most of these new drugs will be unaffordable and offer unknown or questionable benefits. That’s the reason; the government should take some initiatives to take the challenges to make sure the health system.

Government regulation’ regarding prescription drugs, is one of the most influential factors that affecting prescription drug price differentials between countries. Another thing that is affecting also is market forces. To control, and reduce public spending for prescription drugs governments also play a significant role. In American history no governmental regulation has been succeeded in limiting the steady increase in overall drug spending. For example, in France, price control regulation allows for some of the lowest prescription drug prices in Europe (Holt, 2003, p. 330). The drug spending in France is 16% of total health care costs which is double compared to United States.

Columbia, the country of South America is a very much potential place for jewelry business. Like David S. Diamonds, Charlotte jewelry firm, Jacmel Jewelry Inc. many other established jewelry business organizations are now available in Columbia. Every year new entrepreneurs are going towards jewelry business because in this business much experience isn’t needed; only the entrepreneurs have to have the necessary capital and accommodation facilities. In Columbia, many jewelry businessmen are involved with gemstone business. It is possible to establish a jewelry firm in Columbia and expand the firm all over the world through creating and satisfying demand by quality jewelry product.

This research paper will discuss the potentiality of Columbia as a jewelry business market and necessary consideration for the business. For establishing jewelry business ‘Bogotá’, the capital of Columbia, would be a better place because the population of the city is adequate to create a big jewelry market. Another reason may be that the income and standard of living of the people of Bogotá is better than other state of Columbia. Here the considerable factor is that the store should be situated in the central place of the city where it is comfortable and easy to reach from anywhere of the city as well as country and where everybody prefer to shop. Another reason for choosing Bogotá is the huge potential market and after selecting Bogotá as business place, it is very much essential to select a target market, which may vary with different population area, religion, ethnic group and upper or lower or middle class people. And for this it has to be understood that what kind of jewelry products are demanded and by which market (customer).  For jewelry business no technical skill is much needed, but the customer behavior has to be better measured. Generally there is demand of gold jewelry, silver jewelry, platinum wedding rings, diamond wedding bands, gold wedding rings, chains, necklaces, bracelets, pendants, charms and bangles (United States Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. p.23). All the demands may be classified into two basic customer – upper class and middle class customer. So, the product array should be of two kinds – higher priced with higher quality and medium priced with medium quality. It will be better decision to emphasis on higher class group because very recently there is a competition between higher class people for wearing luxurious jewelry ornaments with an intention to exhibit their standard of living or ethnic group (Daniëls, p.17). Also the young generations are fond of wearing luxurious jewelry products.

It’s amazing enough how far to the extreme CEO’s and managers will go just so they don’t appear to be out of touch with deadline that has to met not to mention being placed  in a hostile environment. They will lie, cheat, and steal just to accomplish their goals at  your expense.  When looking from the outside in you see success but at what cost.  Major  companies and corporations they care making money, having power, and control and a lot of them will get it by hook or by crook. General Dwight Eisenhower said "In order to be a leader a man must have followers and to have followers, a man must have confidence hence the supreme quality for a leader is unquestionably integrity.  Without it no real success is possible, no matter what."  Somewhere from the time we were taught as children until we have reached adulthood we have lost a lot of what we have learned. Moral character is something taught by our families, churches, and through education which helped while growing up a long time ago. Now a day, the all mighty dollar has been the controlling point so all that family value stuff has gone out the window and as a result you now see structures broken down (Andrew Stark).  I remember as a child growing up a person’s handshake and just their word alone was their bond.  My how times has changed. With a lot of your big businesses they hire you to day and fire youtomorrow or hire you work you without the proper healthcare needed.  They call it temporary hire. In addition they you them that will try and rob you blind and not care whether it’s fair or not. How many times did you manage a company where you were biding for a contract and for some strange reason or another you got and inside edge do you or do you not take advantage of the situation. There are some come companies that would welcome that opportunity and say tough they should have been a bit more careful paid more attention but, what’s more devastating is this is the way they treat their employees. There are those companies and organizations that really take good care of employees by providing rewards, benefits, and great leadership and for these companies I applaud for practicing good personal and professional ethics.  According to (Wee, 2005) the responsibilities for decisions, therefore, run both ways and that society sets the framework within which those who run companies have to work out their own Codes  of Conduct. But nothing beats go old fashion leadership. With any good company leadership will make the difference. With vision, inspiration, and communicating organizational goals are very important, especially for those in leadership positions. Let’s face the facts any owner would like to see their company having profits and gain but, it’s how you get it which will determine whether or not the ethics practiced by your company is something your organization can be proud of according to (Hawkins, 2003).

Ethics are set principle and values that govern ones behavior, a standard of conduct by which an individual guides his or her actions and judges that of others.  Ethics generally speaking is ones ability to know right from wrong and moral from immoral.  Whatever your definition I think one could agree that ethics play an imperative role in every part of our lives.  Having a good definition of how and why ethics are important, not only in ones personal life but as well as in the work place will directly impact ones level of success.  No matter what the situation maybe work place or not it is important that one conducts his or herself in a moral and ethical manner.

In “Business & Professional Ethics for Directors” Brooks observed that "ethics codes generally deal with corporate values and guiding principles, and codes of conduct generally deal with actual behavior that is favored or prohibited."  He opined that "the focus of a code is also crucial – whether it points the way for employees to do business with integrity or just sets out some prohibitions (thus assuming the employees are potential crooks). And finally, for the purposes of our discussion, that "ethical codes in the workplace usually cover both organizational values and basic principles of conduct. In the realms of values, emphasis is often placed on such issues as "trust, teamwork, honesty, respect for one another, and avoidance of conflict of interests."  

It is also pertinent that we observe the importance of principles. Many organizations are explicit on the principles that should guide the conduct of their staff. Often, as is typified by the code of ethics of the University of Western Australia, these principles include professionalism, accountability and the avoidance of harassment and discrimination. Specifically, these are encoded within the three broad frameworks of "equity and justice, respect for people; and personal and professional responsibility." (Hawkins, 2003)

In the context of the above, the conducts of IF and the office lead are within the category of negative ethics. IF is mentioned as an "instigator". Such behavior does not conduce for teamwork, and is sufficient to warrant the corrective intervention of the office lead.  This aspect may be easily and generously rationalized as poor socialization on the part of IF and leadership failures on the part of the office lead respectively. That is bad enough. However, what is unacceptable is the repeated misuse of the office computer facilities by IF. It contravenes  the provisions of the privacy act responsibilities, which is available to all in the office handbook; and the undertaking of all employees not to misuse office properties which in this case includes the computer. The facts, as presented clearly describe antisocial, inappropriate and unethical behavior by IF. 

The behavior of the office lead is even more unethical. There may be nothing wrong with fellow staff having a good relationship in and out of the office  with all that such an expression can connote – as is the case between the office lead and IF, but certainly, it is wrong for such a relationship to be the reason for dereliction of duty on the part of the office lead in matters concerning the conduct of IF and others in the workplace.