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Description of the types of roles women played in the FLN – ranging from the beginning to the end of the national liberation war.

Standing as the primary partakers on the job, the Algerian women tried to expand their role in the country through becoming the actors in implicating changes in the education of the young ones. Even though the French government did not allow or at least limit the possible ways by which the younger generation could have better access to education back then, the women served as primary noble individuals in the process of helping others learn. They made themselves available for other people they knew who needed their service. It is through this identification of the truth that they are able to find better ways to make idealisms of the FLN group realizable for the whole society to understand the matter that they are aiming to make on the larger population of their nation. Algeria was able to see the major roles that the women took responsibility of during the war years, allowing them the possible chance of realizing freedom in an earlier time thus motivating everyone to work towards the movement that they are aiming to pursue for the betterment of the whole nation. Their roles during the war could be outlined as follows:

Ø  As teachers: they stood as the pillars of hope among the young generation in learning the most basic knowledge they need to survive life after the war later on. Believably, the Algerian women decided to volunteer in assisting small community groups around Algeria to see to it that they are given the chance to learn aiding the people with the most effective arm that they need to fight the oppression that they receive from the French government.

Ø  As doctors and healthcare givers: during the war years, many were wounded, both the innocent ones and the military men needed assistance. They all needed attention and care from well knowledgeable healthcare givers. Women back then, even though they were not properly educated with regards medical proceedings, they were much more than willing to take on the challenge to serve their country men to the best that they could as they knew how much they are needed. This motivated them to work more for their people and see the importance of the matter in a manner that best contributes to the idea that everyone in the society needs to be assisted and everyone deserves to be given attention.

Ø  As Housewives: although everyone was concerned about the war situation in the country, the women never forgot to perform the primary role that they were actually expected to perform. Being mothers and housewives naturally served as the main source of understanding that women gave the hope that each individual in the Algerian society needed before so as to continue that fight that they are already on.

Ø  As combatants: weak in physical matters in comparison with the men, yes, that might be true on the basic understanding about women. However, although this is the case, the women also served as combatants during the war through their strategic use of their minds which shall be further discussed in the section that follows.

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In the paper that follows, understanding how women were actually able to play a great role in the middle of the stance they have towards the fight that they are in against the French government and its oppressing tactics in the country during the war years shall be considerably discussed. Through the use of presenting the history that lead to these changes, the paper shall revolve in identifying the key responsibilities of the women, thus giving recognition to their contribution to the winning of Algerian freedom from the war years.


The war years that bounded the Algerian freedom had been established in the year 1954 and were later on ended in the year 1962. This phase of the Algerian history notes the different issues that existed within the said community before and how these issues were given careful attention so as to assure that Algeria and its people would be free again. Believing in the capability of the people to create their own ways in dealing with the issues of war occurring in the country, several groups were created to control the situation and at least ease the major national pain being dealt with by the people. The belief that the strife should stop especially to protect the values of the innocent ones had been spurred among many group leaders in the history of Algeria giving way to the establishment of the Algerian People’s Party which later on gave birth to a branched organization of the National Liberation Front or the FLN.

What FLN is about is based on the willingness and rather a demand of the people to be free from the grasp of the French government during the 1950’s. The idea that Algeria belongs to the Algerians continued to echo the defense that the FLN organization naturally use to motivate themselves to continue the fight that they have began. This group was rather considered to be one of the most important organizations that existed in the country that aimed for the larger benefit that could be garnered by the larger part of the population that composed the Algerian country. Believably, the people of Algeria knew that they were there to fight for their country and to regain what they lost to the wars from the oppressors who want to have more of their country while enslaving the people of nation.

From the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA), the establishment of the FLN was realized. The unbelievable willingness and serious stand of the people to stand for what they believe is true and to fight for those that they strongly believe to be theirs has fueled the identifiable values of the group which FLN members recognized as the core source of their motivation to continue the legacy of fighting for what is right.

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Being a part of the huge community of countries under the Islamic belief, Algeria is one of the many nations that recognize the classified recognition of genders in the society. The men were recognized as the primary actors of the community while the women were given less provisions and less recognition noting them as simply the complimentary elements to the existence of men. This particular notion however changed due to certain national necessities. Yes, the Algerian women’s participation in the struggle for national liberation originated out of necessity, rather than out of conviction for women’s equality.

True, around the world, the recognition of women has been duly changing and evolving through the years. The understanding of the matter depends on the willingness of the society to recognize the existence of the female gender and how this particular recognition naturally spurs about the sense of equality that is believed to be in a great need of acceptance in the society today. Women from around the world recognize the need for them to be free of discrimination, to be equal in the sense of being noted by the society for existence in comparison with the men. True to its sense, women wanted to join the different gender liberating movements so as to change the status recognition that they receive from the people among all the nations.

However, not all women had the same considerations viewed towards implying the need to change. In Algeria, women were forced to change immediately during the 1950’s to be able to support the national movement for freedom. They were not concerned on being free of any gender based discrimination; rather they were forced to work towards the good of the larger number of people who lived in their country under the oppressive hands of the French military men. Instead of thinking of their own benefits of being recognized as part of a developing society of liberalized women, they were more concerned on how much they could contribute to the freedom of their people and end the strife that their nation had been experiencing from the hands of the French Military troupes in the past.

They knew they needed to do something about their national situation. They knew they had to act upon the situations that they are under, and they knew that as women, they could contribute more and rather strengthen the national group that aims to solve the issues of enslavement during the years of war. Through this particular recognition of their role as women of the society, the Algerian population of women knew that they too play a great part in gaining the most wanted freedom from the hands of their foreign oppressors.

Summary case – part 2

Posted by admin in Art Essays

The problem with this state of the art K’Netix system, however, is directly connected with its tremendously high costs or funning. This condition, coupled with the changing business environment of the 21-st century and increasing competition made Bob Buckman and other company directors start questioning the effectiveness and validity of K’Netix. First, the forum usage (one of the backbones’ of Buckamn Lab’s knowledge management) dropped by over 30% after the K’Netix launch in October 1998. Second, “Bob wondered if it made sense to continue to budget 3.5% to 4.5% of revenues each year” (Fulmer 11). Finally, it became strictly unclear how to build and promote employees’ trust in a virtual world.

2. Problem solution

To encourage wide participation, seven sysops offer on- and off-line help to employees and act as traffic cops in the forums. Sysops, a word from the very early years of the Internet, is short for system operators and they were essentially the prototypes for today’s Webmasters. Together, they act as traffic cops for the forums, directing unanswered questions to the right people inside or outside the company and archiving discussions that lead to effective solutions.

The program took time to implement, and is still evolving. One project underway is to bring suppliers more actively into the virtual teams and forums, widening the circle and expanding the network. The program also faced some internal opposition, particularly from middle managers who worried that being tapped as mentors could ultimately threaten their positions. But once they saw how much time they saved by putting their sales staff closer to the customer, they were converted (Fulmer 10-11).

There are ways to encourage cooperation; one is simply to put staff closer together. People working nearer to each other are more likely to share knowledge than those further apart. Obviously daily face-to-face contact makes cooperation more likely, but building knowledge sharing is possible even in the virtual environment. Workers in the same continent, same country, same city and same office are increasingly likely to cooperate as they move along this scale. Cooperation can also be triggered by other similarities such as the same functional expertise.

3. System and decisions evaluation

Buckman succeeded in making communication and knowledge sharing a cornerstone of the corporation’s culture. With this success came many questions, answers, and, most importantly, solutions to customer problems. Buckman’s understanding of the strength of knowledge brings results. “65% of Buckman’s associates were out selling, compared to 16% in 1979; 33% of sales were from products less than five years old, compared to 22% prior to K’Netix; 72% of associates were college graduates, compared to 39% in 1979” (Fulmer 9). This is not just a statistical win, but a bottom-line win as well. In 1998 Buckman won a contract from a cardboard-making company partly because it was able quickly to answer complex questions about old equipment. Within hours of posting their questions, the local Buckman sales team received 10 responses from three continents. is an organization which is networking persons by offering education related to their civil rights with an aim of empowering and energizing the young generation in order for them to engage themselves in political participation in the Unites States. This organizations main aim is to ensure there is political change how things are done in the country by bringing in new people to the limelight. This organization is of value to many millennium generations. It provides information to all the members who have joined. Joining the organization only requires nothing as it is a non-governmental non-profit making organization.

This organization has many objectives and values tat are to only important to me but too many people in this country. One of the objectives is to educate the young generation about leadership and to mobilize them to be able to adopt change. The main aim in this is to ensure the young generation moves forward and there is change in the way things are done in this country. The education on how public policy affects the live of young people and how people can impact on public policy is very important.

This brings in the objective of change by the people knowing how public policy impacts on their life and how they can impact on public policy innovative solutions will come up because it involves many people as they deliberate joint issues publicly a contribution of each members becomes a innovative idea. This public forum where millennia generation deliberate are institutionalized by This improves governance in the public life. The other goal of energizing and empowering the young generation is important to me and to my youths because I will be able to participate in public issues which affect my day to day life and more so take day to day action when political leaders fail us. Through these forums created many youths are able to understand political issues and are able to make informed judgment in relations to decisions that affects their lives. These can be observed from the recent political campaigns where citizens were able to look at policies that are volunteered by various political players. With proper information from this organization the current economic condition in the United States could have been avoided because the events that led to it were political and economic policies which failed if they were brought to the table and discussed that could have been avoided. This makes the organizations more important than ever as the current and future political leaders are likely to make decisions which do not affect the United States but the world at large.

The values that are pursued by this organizations are extremely very important to me take for instance the value of energizing where people in colleges and high school come together, discuss issues  relating to the constitutions, correct views and how to create strong institutions. This improves my understanding on democracy in my country as well as it brings together students communities, entrepreneurs and political leaders together where ideas are shared./ this indeed is what America is looking for to make the voter outside there understand how he should be governed. Also to make sure that the young people in colleges get an opportunity to mix with people from the business world. This does not only open up the mind of the American world but ensures the prosperity of the country.


Student centered cooperative learning known as Literature circle. The Literature circles also known as literature studies, literacy circles, book clubs, literature discussion groups, book clubs and cooperative book discussion groups etc.  It is one type of reading activity with a group of four to six students irrespective of any grade, level, and subject. It is a comprehensive literacy progam for which literature circles fit and students apply in reading and writing. The small groups of students gather and discuss a piece of literature in depth level.

The Literature circles first implemented in 1982 by the elementary school teacher in Phoenix, Arizona. The aim of the literature circle is to allow the students to practice and to develop the skills and strategies.  The literature circle allows best practice of collaborative learning and student-directed learning but it should not be confused with Book clubs. Of course and book clubs and literature circles give focus on discussion of books but the books clubs have structured agenda of the topic whereas literature circles provides more discussion and give result with critical analysis. [1]According to Schlick, Noe and Johnson (1999), a literature circle is more than a book club. Where as a book club’s discussion only centers on evens and plot, a literature circle format promotes discussion from varying perspectives, which provides members with a deeper understanding of the text.

  Each of member of group will be a given a separate task with specific responsibilities in order to use the same in the group discussion.  The each student will get in depth of the knowledge of the particular task assigned to him/her and it will be shared in the circle/group. The literature circles enhances the critical thinking of the student with respect to the material used such as reading of books, discussion, response to such reading etc. Due to the particular assignments to the students, the student involves with the structured discussion about the assignment and can deliver written and artistic response.


The literature circles may vary between classroom to classroom. Sometimes the group may read same books for different purposes or read different books for same purpose. Generally the literature circles are open-ended but with exceptions like teacher direction, established rules, expectations of outcomes etc. since the literature circles a group work containing 4-6 students, the success of the literature circle depends upon the performance of each student. So every student must address the assigned test by reading, preparing notes for the meeting, effective participation in the meeting etc. The teachers may assign particular assignments to the members of groups but roles may change on weekly basis so that roles and responsibilities may change every week.

The particular assignments are provided to the students. Hence student is liberty to study any of the books and other material including own life experiences. Students can deliver the text in oral and written formats at the meeting specified for it. As he/she has to express the entire knowledge of the particular assignment, much concentrative will be made on the material by making opinions, observations, questions and ideas about the task. Besides the individuals may participate in the group for which the individual can get knowledge on the other topics developed by each group member. Finally every individual of the group may get entire knowledge of the all tasks assigned to them, though every member concentrated on only one assignments.

Sol LeWitt

Posted by admin in Art Essays

  Art is an expression of one’s self. A normative manner with which human individuals do their best to naturally express how they feel or how they view different matters present in the society today. At the present, the contemporary society has offered many different forms of exemplification and abstraction of the humanistic aspect of the society in the form of what is generally known as art. The said manifestations of the artistic nature of the people is viewed by many to be of no value as they do not coincide or agree with the principal guidelines of artistic consideration. On the other hand, other groups in the society claim the other way around. This difference in the interpretation and view about the concrete manifestations of the abstract values of the people produces conflict of opinions in the artistic aspect of the humanity.

  By exemplifying and analyzing different art forms in the modern society, the modern manifestations of the humanistic aspect of the society is still considerably within the principles of artwork and are all appreciable in their own aspects. By also considering the different changes and advancement in the social development the principles of the old art forms are not excluded by the present society but instead made more vivid and artistic with the expansion beyond their past boundaries.

  Sol Lewitt is a strong and direct presentation of a new age artist who knows the different rules of artistic presentation. As a modern artist, Sol Lewitt knew how to present his ideas through modern ways such as imbalanced lines, figures and colors. Through this, he is noted to have the capability of being able to mandate the need of actually finding the right way to present his thoughts through an abstract that is appreciated by most people around the world. NEW… this is what the art of Lewitt all about. Unlike classical art presentations, Lewitt considers modern art as a major source of inspiration among human individuals. This particular art does not only play with the eyes but also plays with the minds of the viewers. Believably, the presentations of Lewitt have captured many individuals who had the chance of appreciating everything that he has created. Considerably, the said art works did not only present modernity, it also presented modern thoughts on life and understanding on how life itself should be viewed as a primary source of continuous flow of lines and  colors that symbolically present the truth behind the different elements of art as an ironic presentation of life itself.

Style and Artistry

  In terms of style, as noted earlier, Lewitt was noted for his capability of actually finding the right process of using lines, colors and shapes to naturally bring about the thought that he has about a certain matter thus making a great impact on the probable process that would show the viewers the right messages and still entertain the visual senses of the people.

  Through minimizing the elements that are present in his work, he was able to attract the eyes of the people towards the focal point of the art pieces. It could be observed that it is through this practical approach that the attention of the people had been drawn towards the main idea that the artist himself would want to impart through the artwork he has presented the society with. It could be considered that through paying attention towards the different elements of art thus implicating the real capability of the viewers to see the real essence of the presentations as a message primarily displayed to entice the wondering minds towards the message being sent through the said art works.

  This could be noted as he decided to place a sculpture of a black plain rectangular box-like structure in front of the Altona City hall to actually help the community realize about the oppression that the Jewish society is experiencing during those times. He primarily used the structure to speak the most simple thought of asking for recognition and help from the greater number of population who could actually observe the situation and naturally give reaction to what is happening to the said group in the society.

Overall Reflection on the Artist’s Presentations

  Overall, the artist naturally posses this observable talent of using least to present a rather implicating message that he hopes to send to the viewers. Every art he works on intends to send an idea to the society making his presentations not only entertaining but also highly informative in the sense of completing the fact that people should use art not only to express themselves but also to affect the lives of the society as a whole through art and the understanding of the different elements of art that is used in presenting facts about the lives of the people and how others could actually make a great effect on making things better for each other.

We should not delay providing the knowledge for too long because then we might figure out that when we were about to tell and guide the youngster about sex education he has already slipped into a particular mindset.

There has been a constant accusation that telling about sex could lead to a sexual arousal and then to sexual experimentation. But this accusation has not been supported well enough from the facts which state that actually young people who have sex education at the early age are less likely to get the unwanted results from sexual intercourse or relationship. Another thing in this whole context is that the adults i.e. parents or teachers or guardians sometimes don’t know how and when to open with their wards about sex education. To avoid this condition it is better to have an open relationship with the young people where they should be encouraged to ask healthy questions about anything. When the students gets sex education in school that don’t means that the responsibility of parents have ended for in school sex education is given in a particular block of time in a group of students. So there is a good enough chance that the concerns of your ward may not have been answered. So parents and guardians should personally look into this aspect of the upbringing of there child.

The Beliefs and Attitude that needs to be taught

The younger generation should be told about all the aspects of attitudes and beliefs that are related to sex and sexual relationship. Information about it is like two sides of coin. One tells about the risks and dangers that are associated with sexual activities. Other side says that the person that is involved in healthy and regular sex is high on activity, has a charming aura around him and maturity level increases. Both these thoughts are contradictory to each other and a child should be exposed to truths of both these sides and the final decision should be left to them. Sex and sexuality both are highly sensitive subjects, young people and sex educators can have strong views on what attitudes people should hold and could differ on what moral framework should guide people’s social behaviour – these too can sometimes seem to be at odds. Young people are very interested in the moral and cultural framework that binds sex and sexuality. They often welcome opportunities to talk about issues where people have strong views, like abortion, sex before marriage, contraception and birth control. It is important to remember that talking in a balanced way about differences in opinion does not promote one set of views over another, or mean that one agrees with a particular view. Part of exploring and understanding cultural, religious and moral views is finding out that you can agree to disagree.

If sex education is imparted effectively then young people can learn much more than just sexual intercourse. They will come to know that why people have sex, why they make love. They will get to know that in sexual relationship it is not about pleasure only it is about respecting each other, emotions, respect for the feelings of other person, how to respect his decisions. All this and many other things are involved into it. It is important that they understand how neglecting, sexual abuse, sexual exploitation of the other partner can permanently damage the relationship or psyche of the person.

From the whole of the discussion we can very well conclude that the sex education is the only way to protect the youth from unwanted and unknown side effects of sexual relationship. Hiding or running away from the child is not a way to go ahead. A healthy relationship as well as open discussion should be promoted with young people so that they know what is good for them and whole society.