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Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

He was an Austrian composer and an important personality who influenced on Mozart and Beethoven. Up to the period of Franz Joseph Haydn the music was not a luxury but from them it become as somewhat luxury. He was much creative on the work of music and most time was spent. He used to work with the musicians daily to get perfect situation. The music has been published all over Europe and well regarded a musician. He was invited for various cities to write musical pieces for such cities like Paris symphonies, London Symphonies, The creation (1798), The seasons (1801) etc. The Paris symphonies and London symphonies mainly formed with the works of Mozart and Beethoven. The paternity of Haydn is was clear and helped to transform the genre from little more than string divertimento. The style of music of Haydn can be recognizable with the early music of Beethoven. The ideas of music directly influenced Mozart for which Mozart responded by dedicating six quarters in the period of 1782-1785.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

He was an Austrian composer and one of the leading composers of the classical era. He was recognized as master in all generes. His music was often joyous and raucous. He was familiar with simple and direct melodies. He was comfortable with all generes. By the age of 12 itself, he had written an opera with boundless talent.  But tragically, the life is ended at the age of thirty five. But the music did not pleasure to the persons those were in power. Emperor Joseph did not satisfy with the Mozar’s “Too many notes”.

Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827)

He was a German composer and considered for the transformation of music from Classical era to Romantic era. He was also regarded as giant for two styles i.e. Classical and Romantic. And the Beethoven’s place in history belongs for both periods. Though he was classical or Romantic composer, yet he was new composer for new age that was reflected in musical and nonmusical worlds. Mr.Haydn and Mr.Mozart both lived during the period of major revolutions. They also lived in the world of Royal patronage. But Beethoven came in such age when the patronage shifted to less reliable mechanism which was commercial aspect. So it becomes challengeable to the Beethoven. By the middle age, the life Beethoven become deaf but produced profound works. The idea of “brotherhood’ was powerful express that was described in Ninth Symphony. Beethoven was one of the most interesting among all other great composers.

The existence of music can be categorized within six major periods i.e. Middle Age, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic and 20th
century. The music style has been changed from era to era. Out of the other eras, the classical era can be described as 1750-1825. The era meant for industrial revolution and new developments noticed by means of increased produced production of goods and wealth. Since the production centralized, the urban society becomes central to life particularly in Europe and America. As such the world identified the natural rights of people during the industrialization and humans are able to shape their own environment. The writers like Jean Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire helped to shape human ideals. During this era, the humans also played vital role and as such the events lead to American Revolution and French Revolution.


The style of the classical era is recognized by many ideals and reflected in a number of musical elements. The standard ext is Homophonic. Besides the contrapuntal texture used for specific purposes. The music used with simple melody. The classical melodies fall sometimes in phrases and organized as question and answer type. During this era many composers found inspiration with folk melodies. The Piano was used to produce gradations of music and become most solo instrument for classical composers. In all classical forms two and three part forms used to build blocks. Such building of blocks noticed especially in the Sonata Allegro form.

The concept of the “Nature” has been used in the Classical era as the people’s view and political view recognized the ‘nature’ is fundamentally good. Hence ‘nature’ became an important component as artistic thought. The music also played social role thereby economic conditions were also improved. During those days people become feel happy.  More production and wealth noticed. Slowly the music identified as Innocent luxury. The European composers reacted to increase demand for music.  The unnatural and artificial gestures of Baroque painting replaced with natural ideals. During those days the concept of music linked with simplicity, balance and an interest in real emotions.


The classical era has been influenced by the composers like John Gay, Franz Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Ludwig Van Beethoven.

John Gay (1685-1732)

He was an English poet and dramatist and famous for The Beggar’s Opera. John Gay created the Beggar’s Opera by using a plot of morals of eighteenth century in London with Italian opera seria. Combining both, he also mixed the interests of segment society all such associated with interests of larger society and created The Beggar’s Opera which was wide appeal. It was just parody of operative works by the leading composer of Italian opera in England i.e. George Frideric Handel. Since the workers influence continued to twentieth century another modern version also released in 1928 with the name of Threepenny Opera.

What is it about later Roman society that that makes the influence of the Etruscans important and so relevant?

·         475 BC Etruscans threaten Rome with war. Rome forced to draw soldiers from the Plebs. Frist opportunity fo them to refuse until Senate recognizes their rights to assembly. Law of 12 Tables. Earliest code of written law. 451-450

·         Kings left Romans with fear of domination by a single ruler.

·         Inherited a tradition of expansion from the Etruscans, fulled by a growing populations. Its remarkable gift for cohesion and compromise despite internal unrest and foreign threats made rome extremely RESILIENT, and this plays a crucial role in its long history of expansion and conflict.

·         This desire to expand, combined with the genius of engineering equipped the romans with Military might and superiority.

·         Early Rome:

–          Conservative agrarian society with strong family networks and a loyal religious piety.

–          Their deities held sway over the natural world. Olympian gods passed on from Greeks to Etruscans to Romans. Kings and later civil magistrates had to ensure they all remained at peace with hte gods. VIP in public pageantry, festivals and sacrifices.

–          Their flexibility to absorb and conquer deities from other cultures mirrored a similiary flexible attitude towards political institutions during Roman republican era

–          Had a tendancy to retain rituals, institutions and customs and adapt them to changing circumstances rather than abolish them.

–          Story of Rome’s founding survives in the myth of Princes Romulus and Remus

–          King had military and Judicial Power and represented the people to the Gods. Senate advised them. Assembly of citizens also could votes directly on legislation.

·         Late Rome:

–          Rome = Still essentially aristocratic throughout its history. The Assembly, divided into 193 centuries based on wealth, each worth one vote. Rich occupied a wide range, whereas the landless were cast in one century still worth only one vote.

–          Women could attend public and private events . Freedoms enabled later access to presence in important political spheres, leading to the rise of powerful women in the early Roman empore such as Agrippina.

–          Slavery was not ethnically or racially based. It was due to birth, conquest or debt

Rome was Successful, whereas Etruscans like the Greeks declined due to their internal inabilities in their city states to unite against common enemies

The world of the ancient civilizations that grew up in the first millennium BC legacy of Rome

–          The Greek temple form was adopted by the Romans and used extensively throughout the Empire. As a public work it took the symbol of democracy.

–          Took from the Greeks and Etruscans the measure of rationality and refinement. The Greeks attempted to intellectualise everything.

–          Greek art came to mean: “the courage to see life whole, without flinching, adn to put up with it while endeavouring to improve it, but also the vision to picture in the mind and in art a perfect world of heroism and virtues and forms.” P 76 PJ


Who were the Etruscans?

–          Obscure origins. Aristocratic society of nobles and Kings.

Where did they come from?

–          Poss from Lydia, Asia Minor. Or of Italic origin since prehistorySea-faring people from the Near-east to northern Italy. Tuscany

When did they have power?

Peak = 8th – 5th BC

Energetic power of expansion due to economic growth rather than desire for power

What were they particularly skilled in ?

–           urban planning and engineering

–           cultural sophistication

–           Religious dedication.

–          Love of music, and dance.

–          Metal works, luxury goods

–           Fasces, carried by Royal powers.

–          Women had greater respect, freedom  and visibility.

–          Extensively influenced by Greeks in commercial enterprises. – Pottery, alphabet, Olympian Gods

Why did Rome absorb their influence?

Who was in power in the Early years of Rome? And what was it about the Roman ruler that made him admire the Etruscan model?

What examples are there in later Roman culture that show evidence of Etruscan influence?

They were a people whose direct whose direct influence  had much direct impact on the city’s early development.

The Etruscans first established a series of small city-states in the northern and central areas of the Italian peninsula, ruling the native Italic people. Then the Etruscans came to Rome in force-as craftsmen, merchants, builders, religious experts, doctors, and rulers. The Etruscans began to form Rome into an architectural city, with streets, public buildings, markets, shops, temples, and domestic houses, that the world knows it as now. They began to form a new Rome by fusing the Etruscan people with the natives throughout the country.

Similar simple origins – ie religious, hard working, tribal, agrarian, adaptable.

Absorbed foreign influences of the Greeks and Orient by maritime trade and commerce.

Rise of Etruscans, expansionist policy influenced and inspired Romans and introduced foreign benfits

Founding Rome

Etrruscan Kings influences

Inspired so when threw off the yoke of Etruscans they were well equipped to persue their own expansionist policy

Elements and characteristic that would pave the way of later society and culture

Dance, women, art, architecture, imperial planning, absorption, citizenship, religion, Unification with forogn mands.

 The Etruscan people is important to understand because the stories and legends provide insight to ancient life and traditions that trickled down to the Roman

A History of the Etruscan people including their cities, art, society, rulers and contributions to civilization he chronology of Etruscan history and civilization has been constructed on the basis of evidence, both archaeological and literary, from the better-known civilizations of Greece and Rome as well as from those of Egypt and the Middle East.

Etruscan maritime power and commerce played a central role in this domination

The Romans learnt many of their artistic and technological from a group of people known as the Etruscans who lived in the hills of Tuscany. The Etruscans were notably accomplished artists and inventors. They taught the Roman people how to work metal

Rome was founded by a pair of feuding brothers who were allegedly raised by wolves. Romulus and Remus. From that point on, the Roman Empire would play a pivotal role in the development of both Eastern and Western society alike. Its influence can still be noticed. The Empire bought us such inventions as aqueducts, elevators, and innovations like urban planning. This essay will discuss the evolution of the Roman Empire and its impact on the Western World.

The Etruscans were a people whose civilization thrived from its maritime activities throughout the Mediterranean. Trade, colonisation and commerce facilitated the wide spread of cultural, artistic and political styles. In this way one of the greatest civilizations, Ancient Greece,  came to the shores of Italy. The Greeks greatly influenced the Etruscans in politics, art, society and religion. This is important to recognize because it was through the Etruscans that Rome absorbed so much of Ancient Greece’s cultural genius which would have a lasting impact throughout its twelve hundred year rule.

The epoch of Roman rule remains to this day one unsurpassed in history. From a simple farming community in Latium to one of the largest, most sophisticated and durable empires the world had yet seen, it built a monumental legacy which still endures in Western civilization today. One of the most significant characteristics that helped the Romans build their empire was their willingness to adapt other people’s ideas for their own purposes. Though they forged a uniquely Roman legacy, their art, architecture, technology, urban planning, military tactics, government and religion all owe a great deal of debt to other people’s influences. Rome’s epic history of adaptation, incorporation and organization really started with their neighbours, the Etruscans. They have been described to be the very building blocks Rome for the important role it played in its transition to civilization.  The Etruscans origins are obscure, but archaeological evidence shows they were a resourceful and advanced sea-faring civilization who had been dominating the Italian peninsula by virtue of its superior weaponry and organization since as early as 1000 BC. Like the Romans, they too had an independent and agricultural background, which spawned a culture not shy of hardship, conservatism, perserverence or adaptation – characteristics which would later mark the Romans out for similar such greatness.  tribal, As Rome steadily developed its city, its governemnet, and culture they imitated many of the elements of the Etruscan civilization. Its success casued the Etruscans to take control of Rome in 650 BC, installing its own line of Kings who began to form Rome into an architectural city, with streets, public buildings, markets, shops, temples, and domestic houses.

  Close contact between these two cultures  in the neighbouring territory of central Italy who had been a dominant force on the peninsula as early as 1000 BC. In the early history of Rome the Etruscans were their single most important influence. When in 650 BC they took control of the site of ROmeThe Etruscans were the dominant early settlers of Italy, controlling the peninsula from as early as 1000 BC. They were an advanced civilization who absorbed the city of Rome at the peak of its the Italian penninsual a civilization who played a major role in the early history and founding of the city. the city’s epic history really started with their neighbours, the Etruscans, who are believed to have been living in Italy as early as 1000 BC. [2]
a people of obsure origins, but who are widely believed to have been living and controlling

In contrasts to Hollywood, the marketing techniques and procedures are still not equipped with the state of art ways. In India the cinema industry is considered as the major film industry of the South Asia. The casts and directors are known to all of those who are living in these areas because of the reasons of the language compatibilities and other knowledge about the culture. But this is all they have to offer for marketing (Jess-Cooke, 2009). The movies are run on the casts and not on the stories and themes. People are more attracted towards their heroes than any other thing and this is the only way the marketing takes place. There are no other ways of stating the themes and inspirations. There are no promotional campaigns apart from recently released Ghajini where some new promotional strategies were implemented by Aamir Khan. Otherwise the people don’t access more for the movies on the internet and other places. There are no special interviews that make quite a lot difference in the exposure of the market and therefore the production and marketing budgets are remained at low level. The impact of Hollywood has been inspirational on Bollywood, the Indian Cinema industry (Desai, 2003). Most of the movies that are now made in India are inspired from some movie of Hollywood. Bollywood has tried to implement special effects as well in their approach recently in movies like Krissh where the idea of supernatural hero has emerged as a good paying idea (Parish, 2007). In fact when Krissh was launched in US, it did earn quite a lot dollars as compared to the other Hollywood movies like Superman Returns etc. on Return on Investment basis. Similarly the ideas are also being generated now in the Bollywood to closely relate to those of Hollywood and the recent movie Slumdog Millionaire though was the production of Hollywood it has easily depicted the talents and structure of the Indian Film Industry all around the world (Parish, 2007). Thus it can be very easy to state that in coming years more and more competition might be originating between the two. Moreover, when we look towards the impact of Bollywood on Hollywood, Hollywood seems to be unaffected by anything going on out there in India or any other Asian countries (Desai, 2003). The reasons are quite obvious as the casts of the Hollywood are known around the world. And other they use certain strategies which are of no match by the Bollywood.

Similar is the case with the Chinese and Taiwanese cinema industries which lack in the production capabilities and are unable to generate high returns most of the times (Lu, 2004). Some of the big earners like Jackie Chan and Jet Lee have opted to move to the Hollywood due to the unavailability of the formal resources that could have made them rich in these areas (Lu, 2004).

The structure of Hollywood makes it the leader of the film industry in the world. Whether it is Europe or Asia the market response and the trends that are present in Hollywood are still far from the reach of either movie industry. Hollywood has been able to maintain such an image in the world by creating masterpieces of art and science through their movies and is always highly regarded. For this reason the Hollywood certainly takes the top spot all the time. Indian and other cinema industries still have to work more in order to compete with the expertise of Hollywood where all the persons are professionals and work accordingly with the perfection in mind.

The marketing procedure of the two is quite different too and the cost of the marketing in the Hollywood are most of the times big budgets. It is also because the US is a supreme marketplace and anything that is marketed has to spend millions just for their mission to reach millions (Marchetti, 2007). The basic way of the marketing is using the television and the premiers which are shown in the cinemas before the start of any movie. Some other marketing techniques are also used when some important personality is tied to the movie cast and the movie title just to make people acknowledge that it will be different movie from the others. Sometimes target market is focused based on the subject of the movies and the possible response that could be achieved. The movies like Star Wars have and Harry Potter series were solely made for the children aged 18 and lower but with the passage of time and with good marketing techniques the response has been generated from all the ages. The hype is created most of the times by advertising in suspense and that clicks on the minds of the people. The movie Titanic is the biggest blockbuster of the Hollywood for all times and had broken records everywhere in the world where the critics on its first show rated this movie not to be able to get the production costs back. But time saw that they didn’t even get their costs back but they have been able to get millions more for a long time. For the most of the times the ideas which are used are the inspirational. Steven Spielberg stated in an interview that for better marketing there has to be a better product and for a better product you must have an inspirational idea (Fleming, 1999). This inspirational idea will make its own success in the market. The promotions that are used in the Hollywood have emerged as another important way of creating a good image. Similarly, the brand management principle also stay fit in the Hollywood market where the actors are basically brands which are publicized and then cashed upon (Fleming, 1999). Another way that is used in the Hollywood is the internet marketing where the internet users watch various trailers, reviews and the interviews before the movie is launched in order to gain what they will be getting (Jess-Cooke, 2009). This makes the Hollywood the better place for the production houses and the casts because they surely get all kinds of exposures in order to meet the marketing needs of the movies.