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Women are traditionally known to have a responsibility of giving care to their homes, their families. It has always been an accepted idea with regards the role of women that they are supposed to prioritize their families since this is the main responsibility that identifies their being. However, as years advance, the role of women in the society also expands. Now, they do not simply stay inside the four walls of their homes. They are now able to take employment outside their homes and they are even able to take responsibilities in the political positions at present. It could not be denied too that even though women are given larger chances of making changes today, they are still able to do all the responsibilities that they are primarily appointed with by womanhood itself (Cantarow, 1980, 13). However, it is undeniable too that most of the women who are working for the society who immediately become social images are noted for their capability of primarily coming up with the possibilities of performing their social responsibilities. On the other hand though, it is also a downside of the situation when they are not able to perform the major responsibility that they have upon their families. It is undeniable that because of the many responsibilities that they are trying to handle, they are usually too much tied up to even attend to their children or their husbands at that. (Cantarow, 1980, 14)
Even though this is the situation, women are still given the finest chance to perform their duties to their families and their society in a balanced process (Cantarow, 1980, 16). It is undeniable that through this, they are to be noted for being able to give the values of their families and their societies in a balanced way, thus becoming the best of themselves, giving their time and sacrificing themselves for the good of the welfare of others. Yes, it is not only in Algeria, but around the world that women today are recognized as major parts of the society taking part on the most important dealings of the human generation and directly makes great changes in the human history as well.
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Linking the women’s roles in the FLN to Karla Cunningham’s three phases of women using the veil as a strategic device in the battle of Algerian independence from France
As a sign of not following through the preemptive steps of the French people to control the country, women decided to burn their veils symbolizing that they and their people should be granted the freedom that they deserve. Through this particular practice of burning the veil, the Algerian nationals intended to accept the fact that freedom could be observed and expected if certain measures of movements towards the said aim of independence are taken into consideration by the people as a whole. It is only through uniting together that they could be able to find the best ways possible that would free them off the controls of the French government. Yes, that unveiling of the Algerian women motivated many people of the country to push through with the aim of considering freedom as a major source of power for the people.
Т With the history of the Algerian womenт�s involvement on the battle that the country needed to undergo, the changes by which the women performed their roles for the society was rather evolutionary that suggests the importance of their existence in the country. This particular fact is mirrored not only in Algeria but around the world as well. There are numerous women who have been making the human society progressive towards a better future: whether in political terms, in social development issues, in educational advancements as well as with moral stratification strategies that are present in the human communities today. With these particular differences set in concentration with making the human society more conducive in receiving the best possible changes needed for the progress that humans particularly expect in life (Anderson, 2003, 27). However, making a difference is not an easy responsibility to take into consideration, especially with that of women who are expected to complete several responsibilities to their families and their selves as well (Anderson, 2003, 21). The question raising the issues then is that of how are they able to perform all the responsibilities that shape their existence within the society and their role as glue-holders of their families?
Т As earlier mentioned, there are numerous women who are known for social service that actually affects the development of the entire human communities today (Anderson, 2003, 15). Among the said women are Hillary Clinton and the late Mother Theresa. There are still others, however their names are too numerous to be listed herein. However, no matter how individually different they may be, they all have the same performing practices in terms of facing the responsibilities that they have upon the societyт�s values and their own aspirations in making great changes in life. (Anderson, 2003, 14)
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Description of the types of roles women played in the FLN – ranging from the beginning to the end of the national liberation war.
Standing as the primary partakers on the job, the Algerian women tried to expand their role in the country through becoming the actors in implicating changes in the education of the young ones. Even though the French government did not allow or at least limit the possible ways by which the younger generation could have better access to education back then, the women served as primary noble individuals in the process of helping others learn. They made themselves available for other people they knew who needed their service. It is through this identification of the truth that they are able to find better ways to make idealisms of the FLN group realizable for the whole society to understand the matter that they are aiming to make on the larger population of their nation. Algeria was able to see the major roles that the women took responsibility of during the war years, allowing them the possible chance of realizing freedom in an earlier time thus motivating everyone to work towards the movement that they are aiming to pursue for the betterment of the whole nation. Their roles during the war could be outlined as follows:
Ø As teachers: they stood as the pillars of hope among the young generation in learning the most basic knowledge they need to survive life after the war later on. Believably, the Algerian women decided to volunteer in assisting small community groups around Algeria to see to it that they are given the chance to learn aiding the people with the most effective arm that they need to fight the oppression that they receive from the French government.
Ø As doctors and healthcare givers: during the war years, many were wounded, both the innocent ones and the military men needed assistance. They all needed attention and care from well knowledgeable healthcare givers. Women back then, even though they were not properly educated with regards medical proceedings, they were much more than willing to take on the challenge to serve their country men to the best that they could as they knew how much they are needed. This motivated them to work more for their people and see the importance of the matter in a manner that best contributes to the idea that everyone in the society needs to be assisted and everyone deserves to be given attention.
Ø As Housewives: although everyone was concerned about the war situation in the country, the women never forgot to perform the primary role that they were actually expected to perform. Being mothers and housewives naturally served as the main source of understanding that women gave the hope that each individual in the Algerian society needed before so as to continue that fight that they are already on.
Ø As combatants: weak in physical matters in comparison with the men, yes, that might be true on the basic understanding about women. However, although this is the case, the women also served as combatants during the war through their strategic use of their minds which shall be further discussed in the section that follows.
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Examination of the FLN (ideologies and praxis)
The major ideologies that FLN has been founded upon is based on the call of the Algerian higher class to the French government as to the manner by which they are treated by the government as second class individuals who could not even get to a decent education. The Algerians knew that as native residents of the country, they, among all the other residents of the country are the most rightful receivers of services of the government especially that of education and health. The people of Algeria were then motivated by the FLN to see to it that they are given rightful access to their rights as humans and as major occupants of the country, they should be given the rightful attention as the population to whom the French people owe their existence in the country. And since the situation has not changed, the FLN organization made its move towards assuring that everything is changed. As the group called for the changes, everyone, men and women were welcomed to join the group so as to make the stand of the organization stronger and more effective in demanding freedom from the French invasion.
The Algerian resentment of the French government grew even stronger demanding the people to work together with FLN thus involving the different individuals to work with the aims and the principles that the group would want to pursue for the freedom of the country. Women in this particular phase made a great implication on the role that they need to take in making a better society for their children. Through these primary praxis of indicated guidelines for the existence of the organization in the country during the war years naturally created a fine definition of the role of women in the society from then towards the years of Algerian independence.
Analysis of how and why women became involved in the FLN movement (women’s involvement in the public sphere under French colonization, focusing on education, violence and domestic responsibilities)
As obviously noted above, the reasons behind the establishment of FLN is the implication of the fact that the Algerian nationals wanted to realize the reality of education and health as well as national security as the primary elements of survival for the entire population of the country towards the new generations that would follow through. It could be observed that through this particular historical event, the role of women in the Algerian community took a great turn making a huge implication on the role of women in the said community at present. These particular changes shall be discussed in the section that follows.
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In the paper that follows, understanding how women were actually able to play a great role in the middle of the stance they have towards the fight that they are in against the French government and its oppressing tactics in the country during the war years shall be considerably discussed. Through the use of presenting the history that lead to these changes, the paper shall revolve in identifying the key responsibilities of the women, thus giving recognition to their contribution to the winning of Algerian freedom from the war years.
NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT in ALGERIA: A history
The war years that bounded the Algerian freedom had been established in the year 1954 and were later on ended in the year 1962. This phase of the Algerian history notes the different issues that existed within the said community before and how these issues were given careful attention so as to assure that Algeria and its people would be free again. Believing in the capability of the people to create their own ways in dealing with the issues of war occurring in the country, several groups were created to control the situation and at least ease the major national pain being dealt with by the people. The belief that the strife should stop especially to protect the values of the innocent ones had been spurred among many group leaders in the history of Algeria giving way to the establishment of the Algerian People’s Party which later on gave birth to a branched organization of the National Liberation Front or the FLN.
What FLN is about is based on the willingness and rather a demand of the people to be free from the grasp of the French government during the 1950’s. The idea that Algeria belongs to the Algerians continued to echo the defense that the FLN organization naturally use to motivate themselves to continue the fight that they have began. This group was rather considered to be one of the most important organizations that existed in the country that aimed for the larger benefit that could be garnered by the larger part of the population that composed the Algerian country. Believably, the people of Algeria knew that they were there to fight for their country and to regain what they lost to the wars from the oppressors who want to have more of their country while enslaving the people of nation.
From the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA), the establishment of the FLN was realized. The unbelievable willingness and serious stand of the people to stand for what they believe is true and to fight for those that they strongly believe to be theirs has fueled the identifiable values of the group which FLN members recognized as the core source of their motivation to continue the legacy of fighting for what is right.
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Being a part of the huge community of countries under the Islamic belief, Algeria is one of the many nations that recognize the classified recognition of genders in the society. The men were recognized as the primary actors of the community while the women were given less provisions and less recognition noting them as simply the complimentary elements to the existence of men. This particular notion however changed due to certain national necessities. Yes, the Algerian women’s participation in the struggle for national liberation originated out of necessity, rather than out of conviction for women’s equality.
True, around the world, the recognition of women has been duly changing and evolving through the years. The understanding of the matter depends on the willingness of the society to recognize the existence of the female gender and how this particular recognition naturally spurs about the sense of equality that is believed to be in a great need of acceptance in the society today. Women from around the world recognize the need for them to be free of discrimination, to be equal in the sense of being noted by the society for existence in comparison with the men. True to its sense, women wanted to join the different gender liberating movements so as to change the status recognition that they receive from the people among all the nations.
However, not all women had the same considerations viewed towards implying the need to change. In Algeria, women were forced to change immediately during the 1950’s to be able to support the national movement for freedom. They were not concerned on being free of any gender based discrimination; rather they were forced to work towards the good of the larger number of people who lived in their country under the oppressive hands of the French military men. Instead of thinking of their own benefits of being recognized as part of a developing society of liberalized women, they were more concerned on how much they could contribute to the freedom of their people and end the strife that their nation had been experiencing from the hands of the French Military troupes in the past.
They knew they needed to do something about their national situation. They knew they had to act upon the situations that they are under, and they knew that as women, they could contribute more and rather strengthen the national group that aims to solve the issues of enslavement during the years of war. Through this particular recognition of their role as women of the society, the Algerian population of women knew that they too play a great part in gaining the most wanted freedom from the hands of their foreign oppressors.
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Physicians in United States are concerned about the health and well being of the patients. Both the patients and physicians expect that medicine, which will do the job effectively, with fewer side effects and at a price that everyone can afford. To do so, price cuts and re-import would be the best solution. Price cuts would prompt a large rise in consume of needed medications.
Besides these steps, there is some other strategy that also should be implemented. If the policy makers want to do the task easier, they can implement the following suggestions:-
Formulation: Formulary information should be available to physicians. It can be done through making all federal pharmacy plan formularies available into central location. Different types of formularies are the cause of high drugs cost. As one policy does not match with another policy, that
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From the above discussion it is clear that dreams have a very good indicative power for several physical and mental illnesses. Children who stutter having limited capabilities to express their dreams in words the art therapy is very much helpful for them to find out about their dreams as well as the physical situations they are in. Any of the methods describes above can be used in this regard to find out the expression of the children who stutter and to provide them with therapeutic relief. From the psychological and therapeutic point of view it is seen that children who stutter suffering from any fatal disease find it easier to express their feelings about their physical conditions through art forms rather than through language. Different artistic expressions also indicate their family environment and the situations they have been experiencing in their lives. According to the study conducted by Dr. Beale the drawings created by the children who stutters suffering from cancer clearly depicted their perception of the disease as well as the insecurity and fear for life they were experiencing due to the ailment (Stuyck, 2003). A very good example of such condition can be cited from the study of Dr. Beale when a very young cancer patient drew a picture of a person jumping from a burning airplane with a parachute towards a water body infested with sharks. The water body also was shown to contain an empty boat which the child did not find a very good option in this situation. The entire picture depicted the insecurity of the child who did not find any p0lace to go for some solace and could not find any option to comfort himself (Stuyck, 2003). When the perception of the child about the situation was understood therapy can be helpful to enable the patient with the alternatives to deal with her/his perception and the potential danger. If the children who stutter are found to be frightened with the depiction of their own drawings then the best therapeutic approach is to relate the discussion to the metaphor of the picture and to try to induce the sense of relief and hope in the children who stutter. According to Dr. Beale more open discussion regarding the diseases help children who stutter overcome their fear. Parents hiding the information from their children who stutter put them in even more danger when the children who stutter fail to understand the situation clearly and perceive uncanny consequences (Stuyck, 2003). The context of a trusted relationship often helps the children who stutter to deal with their fear and generate more hope. The art therapy thus helps mainly in finding out the internal perceptions of the children who stutter for better provision of mental or physical supports.
Art therapy was also found to be helpful for autistic children who stutter for the development of speech. It has been found that the autistic children who stutter having difficulty in communication and building relationships found the art forms as the ways to express themselves and thus are able to deal with their inability more effectively. The art creations help them feel the normalcy of a child life and encourage them to break open from social isolation. The creative environment provided by the art therapy helps the special children who stutter to build a sense of identity and enables them to find the source of self expression and confidence. All these issues are equally applicable for the normal children who stutter also. It is often seen that the association with arts helps in their all round development enhancing their creativity, imagination and expression (Tan-Ha, 2006).
Thus to conclude it can be said that the art therapy as the demonstration of the dreams and inner world of the children who stutter has considerable importance from psychological and medical points of view and are often helpful for overall development of children who stutter from emotional, behavioral as well as physical aspects.